Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) is a transfer equipment. It provides optical cable termination and jumper connection. This is for backbone layer optical cable and distribution layer optical cable. It is a weatherproof enclosure that connects fiber optic cables and passive optical splitters. The enclosure contains optic splitter ports, outside the network’s plant segment. These ports have different splitter density, depending on the type.
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Fiber Distribution Hubs are environmental enclosures that run cables in the multi-floor data centers. They could be rack mount or wall mount. Fibers could be single-mode or multimode. Single-mode fiber has high-bandwidth services. It also has greater cable run distances of 3000 meters. Multimode fiber has up to 2000 meters only.
Fiber-optic cable contains thin shreds of glass optical fibers which use light to carry data. This makes it different from coaxial cable, which uses electricity to carry data. Fiber internet is also faster, with gigabit access speeds of up to 1 Gigabit per second. The optical cable junction box receives the optical cable after the fixing, termination, and fiber distribution.
Then, jumper fibers connect the trunk layer optical cable and the distribution layer optical cable. As a complete solution to network problems, fiber optics does the job of providing service providers with long-distance and high-performance data and internet connection. When the end users are satisfied by the performance, it ultimately leads to more customer turn-ups. A type of FDH is the sealed FDH 4000.
The new sealed Fiber Optic Hub features higher fiber counts, small enclosure and industry-leading port density, less visual impact, and craft-friendly cable management features found in all legacy TE FDH solutions. It helps to overcome space challenges in crowded hand holes and can be used as a below-grade solution. It also helps to build critical fiber connections. FDH 3000 has bottom-entry cable design, additional splitter slots, and enables higher bandwidth services. Fiber optic terminations is the process of connecting fiber to an outlet or equipment, which allows it to connect the cable to other cables or devices.
Other important terms include:
The Optical Distribution Network (ODN). This is an important path for transmitting Passive Optical Network (PON) data. This is because it affects its performance and reliability. The typical split ratios or splitter capacity in PON FTTx networks is 132.
In the feeder network, fiber optic cables (FOC), known as feeder cables extend from the access node into the FTTH networks area. Then they go all the way to the main fiber concentration point and the FDT. They could be micro cables or drop cables.
Fiber optic splice closure is a high quality device that offers space and protection for spliced fiber optic cables. The fiber optic closure safely joins and stores optical fibers outside plant network or within structures.
Fiber pigtails are used to connect terminated fiber optic cables using mechanical or fusion splicing.
Splitter modules are compact size fiber optic splitters mounted in cartridges to enable convenient handling.
Performance of Fiber Distribution Cabinet
The fiber hub is a connection device installed outdoors. It could be by pad mount applications, utility pole mount, or floor standing. A fiber distribution box converts distribution cables into individual cables. The most fundamental need for it is to be able to withstand the drastic climate and harsh environments.
Some radiation hardened fiber are suitable for that. It should have the characteristics of waterproof gas condensation. Also, it should be waterproof and dustproof. It should also have anti-insect and anti-rodent damage. It should also have strong resistance to impact damage. The cabinet design must make it able to withstand relatively harsh external environments.
So, the outside of the box has high requirements for waterproof, moisture-proof and dust-proof. It must also have impact damage, pest and rodent prevention. The inside of the box has very specific requirements for temperature and humidity control.
According to international standards, the highest standard for these projects is IP66. But few box shells can meet this standard. The optical cable transfer boxes used in China mainly include the original German KRONE box.
The box is made of unsaturated polyester glass fiber reinforced material (SMC). This has high performance, waterproofing, moisture-proof, and impact damage.
The domestic imitation products of KRONE cabinets are mainly iron-based metal cabinets. Metal cabinets cannot be used in large quantities and will eventually fade away. This is due to their inferior performance in terms of waterproofing gas condensation.
Some domestic imitation products are quite different from the KRONE imported from Germany. This when we consider waterproof gas condensation and impact resistance due to material performance problems. In addition, due to the poor anti-aging performance of the sealing strip, it is waterproof and dustproof.
Performance is also average. When the external environment of the installation location of the optical cable transfer box is good, one can reduce the performance requirements and reduce the investment.
● A fiber optic connector could be SC connectors, LC connectors, or ST connectors. There are also those with smaller footprint.
● The active optical fiber connector should meet the requirements of “insertion loss” and “return loss” specified in the relevant standards of the selected type.
● The withstand voltage level between the high-voltage protective grounding device and the metal workpiece of the box should not be less than DC 3000V. There will be no breakdown and no arcing for 1 minute.
● The insulation resistance between the high-voltage protective grounding device and the metal workpiece of the box shall not be less than 2´104MW under the condition that the test voltage is DC 500V.
● The cross-section of the ground wire connecting the high-voltage protective grounding device to the metal reinforcing core, moisture barrier, and armor layer in the optical cable shall not be less than 6mm².
Some notable companies in the industry include
Clearfield FieldSmart products, manufacturers of some of the most popular products in the market for optic fiber management.
TE Connectivity Ltd.; family of companies, and a world leader in connectivity that manufacture connectors and sensors. Some of the high-performing TE products include electronic power meters, power cable accessories, and power systems connectors.
To support enhanced FDH, there are security requirements and regulatory restrictions put in place as an ideal solution to management and regulation issues.
Capacity of fiber distribution Hubs
The capacity of the fiber distribution cabinet is the maximum number of fiber cores which the optical cable junction box in the fiber hub can terminate. As designed by the design engineers and network engineers, the size of the capacity is proportional to the volume of the box, the overall cost, and the difficulty of factory construction and maintenance, so it should not be too large.
In actual design and engineering, people want the capacity of optic cable transfer boxes to be as large as possible.
However, this has some possible consequences. The volume of the box will increase and the price of the equipment will increase.
The capacity of the fiber cross connect cabinet should refer to its fiber distribution capacity. This is the sum of the fiber distribution capacity of the trunk cable. And the fiber distribution capacity of the branch cable from one distribution point to the other using port distribution fibers.
The capacity of the odf cabinet should include three parts: the straight-through capacity of the trunk optical cable, the fiber distribution capacity of the trunk optical cable, and the fiber distribution capacity of the branch optical cable.
Features of outdoor fiber distribution cabinet
Some of the new features and additional features include:
3.1 IP65 grade stainless steel hub
The box body comprises a series of features such as a high-strength stainless steel plate, which has high strength, anti-aging, anti-corrosion, and can resist accidental or malignant damage
All corners of the box are formed by special rounded corner-forming molds, the surface treatment is wire drawing or electrostatic spraying, and the appearance is beautiful
The box body adopts a double-layer structure, and the middle contains high-performance thermal insulation materials. These have a good thermal insulation effect and can effectively prevent the condensation of water vapor in the box.
The box door adopts a special sealing door seal, waterproof door lock, and three-point door pin locking. All of this is safe and reliable and has good sealing performance.
●Using 12-core fusion wiring integrated module in the modular design.
●Can be installed with FC, SC fiber optic adapters
●There are reliable optical cable fixing and grounding protection devices
●Suitable for termination of single core and ribbon cables
3.2 SMC material cabinet
The box body is made of high-strength international aviation material SMC (glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester plastic).
This is through high-temperature molding, which has a long service connection life, anti-aging, and anti-radiation. The surface does not need any protection and has all-weather protection function to serve as a weather solution.
The box is thick and has a good heat insulation effect. This helps to effectively prevent the condensation of water vapor in the box
The box door adopts a special sealing door seal, waterproof door lock, and three-point door pin locking. This makes it safe and reliable and it makes it have good sealing performance.
●Using 12-core fusion wiring integrated module
●Suitable for the installation of FC and SC fiber optics.
●There are reliable optical cable fixing and grounding protection devices
●Suitable for termination of single core and ribbon cable
●Applicable standard YD/T 988-2007 
4. Standard value of components parts inside the cabinet
Connector loss (insertion, repeat) ≤0.5db
Return loss pc≥40db, UPC≥50dB, APC≥60dB
1000 times of fiber optic adapter plugging and unplugging, the change is less than or equal to 0.2dB
Application of ODF cabinet
The optical cable junction box is mainly used for the interface equipment at the junction of the trunk optical cable and the distribution optical cable in the optical cable access network.
The structure of the optical cable transfer box mainly comprises the box body, the internal gold workpiece, the optical fiber movable connector, and the spare accessories.
According to different use occasions, you can divide it into the indoor type. For outdoor installations, install the outdoor type on the ground, overhead, or wall. The external dimensions of the outdoor optical cable transfer box should not exceed 1 600 mm × 1 100 mm × 400 mm (height, width, and depth). This is for an outdoor fiber distribution hub.
Importance of optic distribution cabinet
Business drives network development and improved high-density fiber connectivity. Currently, the telecommunications business is facing the continuous advancement of 3G network construction. The pace of FTTH construction is experiencing acceleration, and the construction of triple play is ready to go.
The development of the telecommunications business is very good, but for telecom companies, efficiency is the last word of development.
That means, in such a new situation, how to win the market, how to have a large number of users, and how to get a head start in the market are the most critical. For telecommunications companies, the first thing to do is to build a solid basic network with abundant basic resources.
That means, building an optical fiber physical network with abundant resources, high connectivity and a stable and reliable network is a problem that telecommunications companies must solve.
The optical transfer box will play a very important role in the construction of the entire local optical cable network. This will help the expansion and continuation of the optical cable construction.
When constructing the local optical cable network, one can do some things to improve the utilization rate of the optical cable trunk.
● Reduce the number of times opening and closing the optical cable joint
● Effectively improve the safety and reliability of the optical cable.
● Set up a necessary optical cable transfer box on the trunk routing of the optical cable.
● Install the user-side optical cables of the optical cable junction box one by one according to the development needs of users.
The choice of the capacity of the junction box can be based on 288 cores. Connect the trunk optical cable of the junction box to the base station (access layer node) nearby.
To ensure easy access, connect a part of the backbone fiber core of the optical cable to the tandem layer node.
There are two networking modes in the construction of optical cables. They are bus structure and ring structure.
The line structure is the network structure. You can only connect from the central office to each optical cable junction box. You do this by using one large pair of optical cables.
They use this in non-key areas with small business volumes and small scope. The ring structure means that all the optical cable junction boxes use a large pair of optical cables together.
The optical cable ends at the central office terminal. Thus, it forms a closed-loop network structure by itself. The core distribution is the same as the bus structure.
Thus, the application of the optical junction box in the local optical cable network is important for effective management and rational planning. It aids in the utilization of the optical cable core and improves the refined management of the optical cable core.
It also allows the construction of optical fiber networks to have flexibility and good scalability. This ensures that the optical cable physical network can help in the development and construction of telecommunication services.
Requirements of a fiber cabinet
● The opening angle of the box door should not be less than 120°.
● The opening and closing of the door lock are flexible and reliable.
● The protective grounding place should have obvious grounding marks.
● No matter where one lays and turns the optical fiber in the box, the bending radius should not be less than 30mm.
● The setting of the optical cable inlet should protect the bending radius of the optical cable when one introduces it. its bending radius should be greater than 20 times the diameter of the optical cable.